The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the annual meeting, equivalent to a general assembly of states, to set global climate goals.
The Conference of the Parties (COP) was born following the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, which gave birth to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The signatory countries of the UNFCCC have been meeting annually since 1995. The first Conference of the Parties was held in Germany. The purpose of these meetings is to verify the proper implementation of the objectives of the UNFCCC. The 196 signatory countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have established quantified objectives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
There are thus 3 COPs, born from 3 conventions:
– The COP on biodiversity
– The COP on the fight against desertification
– The COP on climate change (the most important of the three)
It was in 1997, during the 3rd COP that the Kyoto Protocol was signed, it aimed to reduce by 5% the GHG emissions between 2008 and 2012 the Paris Agreement in 2015 were adopted during these meetings.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THE COP
The main objective of the COP is to reinforce the commitments made by the member states during the convention. It is also to assess the degree of implementation of the climate convention and all the climate actions of each country.
The UNFCCC takes up the principles of the declaration of the Rio Summit as well as those of Agenda 21, these two texts formulate recommendations concerning: sustainable development, pollution, health, poverty or waste management. The UNFCCC recognizes the existence of climate change linked to human activities and commits industrialized countries to take their responsibilities in the face of this phenomenon and to act in favor of environmental protection.
At each annual meeting, the progress made in reducing emissions is reviewed and new, more ambitious agreements are signed.
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE COP
All the signatory states of the UNFCCC, 197 of them, are convened to the annual meeting of the COP. The official organizer is the UN, but the conference is held in a different country each year.
Since 2022, the position of Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC has been held by Simon STIELL.