What is COP?

The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the annual meeting, equivalent to a general assembly of states, to set global climate goals.

The Conference of the Parties (COP) was born following the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, which gave birth to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The signatory countries of the UNFCCC have been meeting annually since 1995.  The first Conference of the Parties was held in Germany. The purpose of these meetings is to verify the proper implementation of the objectives of the UNFCCC. The 196 signatory countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have established quantified objectives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

There are thus 3 COPs, born from 3 conventions:

– The COP on biodiversity

– The COP on the fight against desertification

– The COP on climate change (the most important of the three)

It was in 1997, during the 3rd COP that the Kyoto Protocol was signed, it aimed to reduce by 5% the GHG emissions between 2008 and 2012 the Paris Agreement in 2015 were adopted during these meetings.


The main objective of the COP is to reinforce the commitments made by the member states during the convention. It is also to assess the degree of implementation of the climate convention and all the climate actions of each country.

The UNFCCC takes up the principles of the declaration of the Rio Summit as well as those of Agenda 21, these two texts formulate recommendations concerning: sustainable development, pollution, health, poverty or waste management. The UNFCCC recognizes the existence of climate change linked to human activities and commits industrialized countries to take their responsibilities in the face of this phenomenon and to act in favor of environmental protection.

At each annual meeting, the progress made in reducing emissions is reviewed and new, more ambitious agreements are signed.


All the signatory states of the UNFCCC, 197 of them, are convened to the annual meeting of the COP. The official organizer is the UN, but the conference is held in a different country each year.

Since 2022, the position of Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC has been held by Simon STIELL.

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Pas de pauvreté

Éliminer la pauvreté sous toutes ses formes et partout dans le monde.

No poverty

End poverty in all its forms and everywhere.


Éliminer la faim, assurer la sécurité alimentaire, améliorer la nutrition et promouvoir l’agriculture durable.

Zero hunger

Éliminer la faim, assurer la sécurité alimentaire, améliorer la nutrition et promouvoir l’agriculture durable.

Bonne santé et bien-être

Assurer une vie saine et promouvoir le bien-être pour tous à tout âge.

Good health and well-being

Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

Education de qualité

Assurer une éducation de qualité exclusive et équitable et promouvoir les possibilités d’apprentissage tout au long de la vie pour tous.

Quality education

Ensure exclusive and equitable  quality education and promote lifelong learnig opportunities for all.

égalité entre les sexes

Assurer l’égalité des sexes et l’autonomisation de toutes les femmes et les filles.

Gender equality

Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

Eau propre et assainissement

Assurer la disponibilité et la gestion durable de l’eau et de l’assainissement pour tous.

Clean water and sanitation

Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

Energie propre et D’un coût abordable

Assurer l’accès à une énergie abordable, fiable, durable et moderne pour tous.

Affordable and clean energy

Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

Travail décent et croissance économique

Promouvoir une croissance économique soutenue, inclusive et durable, le plein emploi productif et un travail décent pour tous.

Decent work and economic growth

Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

Industrie, innovation et infrastructure

Construire des infrastructures résilientes, promouvoir une industrialisation inclusive et durable et encourager l’innovation.

Industry, innovation and infrastructure

Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.

Inégalités réduites

Réduire les inégalités entre les pays et au sein des pays.

Reduced inequalities

Reduce inequalities among and within countries.

Ville et communautés durables

Rendre les villes et les établissements humains inclusifs, sûrs, résiliants et durables.

Sustainable cities and communities

Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

Consommation et production responsable

Assurer des modes de consommation et de production durables.

Responsible consumption and production

Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

Mesure relatives à la lutte contre les changements climatiques

Prendre des mesures urgentes pour lutter contre le changement climatique et ses impacts.

Climate action

Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.

Vie aquatique

Conserver et utiliser durablement les océans, les mers et les ressources marines pour le développement durable.

Life below water

Conserve ans sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

Vie Terrestre

Protéger, restaurer et promouvoir l’utilisation durable des écosystèmes terrestres, gérer durablement les forêts, lutter contre la désertification, stopper et inverser la dégradation des sols et mettre un terme à la perte de biodiversité.

Life on land

Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

Paix, justice et institutions efficaces

Promouvoir des sociétés pacifiques et inclusives pour le développement durable, assurer l’accès à la justice pour tous et mettre en place des institutions efficaces, responsables et inclusives à tous les niveaux.

Peace, justice, and strong institutions

Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

Partenariats pour la réalisation des Objectifs

Renforcer les moyens de mise en œuvre et revitaliser le partenariat mondial pour le développement durable.

Partnerships for the goals

Strenghen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.